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VOL.19 NO.1 (published in Jun-2011)

Photo in Cover :Lakeside Energy From Waste Plant
VOL.19 NO.1 (published in Jun-2011)
Overview of Ultrasonic Technologies and their Applications
Kentaro NAKAMURA*,Ryoji SAMESHIMA**and Yumi MATSUDA***
(*Tokyo Institute of Technology, **Energy and Environment Development Dept.,
***Sewerge Engineering Dept.
)

(Abstract)

Sound and vibrations over 20 kHz are defined as ultrasound or ultrasonic waves, which propagate in air and water as well as in solids. Their industrial applications are spreading from instrumentation and non-destructive testing, to power use such as cleaning and machining where the energy of ultrasound is utilized. Short wavelength and high directivity originated from higher frequency, and low attenuation in water and solids are good reasons for being used for these applications. Electromagnetic waves including light have difficulty in transmitting along long distance in water and solids. Though the vibration amplitude is low around 10 μm, the acceleration becomes extremely high because of high frequency, and the sound pressure/strain easily reaches high value. Cavitation is caused under high sound pressure in water. Very high temperature and pressure, and jet at compressive phase of the vibration of cavitation bubble cause various kinds of physical and chemical effects.

In this review, first, nature of ultrasound is explained, and then, several examples of its applications are introduced. In the last part of the review, a method for alcohol concentration using ultrasonic atomization is described as one of the practical applications of ultrasonic technology.

Technologies for Controlling AMCs at Semiconductor Manufacturing Plants
Iwao YOSHIZAWA*
(*Dan-Takuma Technologies, Inc.)

(Abstract)

With the miniaturization of semiconductor devices has been rapidly evolving, controlling airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs), temperature, humidity, vibration and magnetic fields, as well as more conventional particle contamination, in clean room environments has become even more important. The trace AMCs such as acidic gases, basic gases, condensable organic compounds and dopants have a major impact on the reliability of semiconductor devices. Until now, the most effective way of controlling AMCs has been the use of analyzers and chemical filters, utilizing removal principles such as ion exchange methods and physical adsorption methods. With even advanced devices calling for the use of exposure equipment that utilize extremely short wavelengths down to 13.5nm - the next generation EUV(Extreme Ultra Violet) - there are obvious cues to the increased importance of technology for controlling AMCs. This article provides an outline of the control of AMCs in general, as well as a description of measurement equipment that is effective for the continuous monitoring of AMCs in clean room environments.

Lakeside Energy from Waste Plant
Ryoji TANI*
(*Environmental Engineering Dept. Ⅱ)

(Abstract)

This plant is designed and constructed as power plant rather than waste incineration plant and first experience which TAKUMA supplies this type of plant in Europe.

Although at the design stage, we considered how to achieve all contract requirements, especially high efficiency thermal recovering system and also we struggled how to control European sub-contractors at the construction stage, fortunately we successfully completed this project. We believe this experience give us the strong confidence which TAKUMA can proceed worldwide requirement of this kind of market.

Biodiesel Production from Waste Food Oil with the New Catalytic Cracking Method
Hirotaka DOHI*and Kazuhiro SATO*
(*Energy and Environment Development Dept.)

(Abstract)

A demonstration examination was conducted to establish a technology for producing high quality biodiesel fuel consisting of olefin and paraffin from the waste food oil in the catalytic cracking method in which the newly developed catalyst is applied.

A demonstration facility having a waste food oil processing capacity of 5L/h, and consisting of a catalytic reactor and fractionator was designed and constructed. Then the examination has led to an achievement of a biodiesel yield of approx. 60% in weight and 67% in energy recovery (calculated at 87% in energy recovery when other components are included). Moreover, the quality of the biodiesel fuel complied with all regulations in the diesel fuel quality standards.

Results of the adaptability evaluation of the fuel to vehicle engine using school bus on 100% biodiesel fuel achieved a mileage of 2,700 km from approximately 500 L of the fuel, indicating the fuel performance on par with that of commercially available diesel fuel.

Gas Turbine Cogeneration Facility  Installation Report
Kenji MATSUDA*
(*Energy Engineering Dept. Ⅱ)

(Abstract)

We designed and built a gas turbine cogeneration facility in July 2010 at Matsushige Factory, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc. with the aim of improving energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. This facility will work in tandem with fuel conversion to reduce energy usage of 1,810 kL (when converted to crude oil) and CO2 emissions of 7,600 ton per year throughout the entire factory. This article provides an overview of this gas turbine cogeneration facility and a report on its operating conditions.

Overview of Laser HCL Meter and Inspections of Efficiency
Yoshiji MATSUDA*
(*Electrical instrumentation division)

(Abstract)

Laser exhaust gas analyzers first became available in Europe in the 1990s. As these types of analyzers allowed measurements to be made without having to take any sample gases, they provided fast response and maintenance-free operation, and they are gradually replacing existing analyzers that are currently available around the world to be used as continuous analyzers. Even in Japan, a number of manufacturers have successfully commercialized these types of analyzers, and with JIS regulations set for laser exhaust gas analyzers, they continue to be used in greater numbers. This article also provides a report on HCL (hydrogen chloride) analyzers, which are a common type of laser exhaust gas analyzer. Laser HCL analyzers comply with JIS regulations, and are a legal method of taking exhaust gas measurements from waste incinerators. Response is approximately 10 minutes faster than conventional ion electrode methods, which means an approximate 10% reduction in calcium hydroxide usage if they analyzer makes use of calcium hydroxide injection control with a dry scrubber. This is the equivalent of a reduction of approximately 15.8 million yen in costs annually for each furnace of a size of 300 [ton/day]. The advantages are immense: more efficient maintenance, better control and improved operation, and reductions in running costs.